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Thursday, 8 November 2012

PHP general-purpose server-side scripting language




PHP is an open source general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. The code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page.
It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.PHP can be deployed on most Web servers and also as a standalone shell on almost every operating system and platform free of charge.A competitor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) server-side script engine and similar languages, PHP is installed on more than 20 million Web sites and 1 million Web servers.Software that uses PHP includes MediaWiki, Joomla, Wordpress, Concrete5, MyBB, and Drupal.



Licensing
PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which insists that:
Products derived from this software may not be called "PHP", nor may "PHP" appear in their name, without prior written permission from group@php.net. You may indicate that your software works in conjunction with PHP by saying "Foo for PHP" instead of calling it "PHP Foo" or "phpfoo".
This restriction on use of the name PHP makes it incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL).


php: especially suited for server side application.



Usage
PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to server-side web development where PHP generally runs on a web server. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic web page content or dynamic images used on Web sites or elsewhere.It can also be used for command-line scripting and client-side graphical user interface (GUI) applications. PHP can be deployed on most Web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use.



Security
About 30% of all vulnerabilities listed on the National Vulnerability Database are linked to PHP. These vulnerabilities are caused mostly by not following best practice programming rules: technical security flaws of the language itself or of its core libraries are not frequent (23 in 2008, about 1% of the total).Recognizing that programmers make mistakes, some languages include taint checking to automatically detect the lack of input validation which induces many issues. Such a feature is being developed for PHP, but its inclusion in a release has been rejected several times in the past.



Compilers
The PHP language was originally implemented as an interpreter. Several compilers have been developed which decouple the PHP language from the interpreter. Advantages of compilation include better execution speed, static analysis, and improved interoperability with code written in other languages.PHP compilers of note include Phalanger, which compiles PHP into Common Intermediate Language (CIL) bytecode, and HipHop, developed at Facebook and now available as open source, which transforms the PHP Script into C++, then compiles it, reducing server load up to 50%.



Resources
PHP includes free and open source libraries with the core build. PHP is a fundamentally Internet-aware system with modules built in for accessing File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers, many database servers, embedded SQL libraries such as embedded PostgreSQL, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server and SQLite, LDAP servers, and others. Many functions familiar to C programmers such as those in the stdio family are available in the standard PHP build.


references for php.
mb.



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